Travel Pattern and Pandemic; How Do Travel Preferences Effects The Changes In Expenses In New Normal Era?

Main Article Content

Ni Ketut Wiwiek Agustina
Della Sharyputra


The Covid-19 pandemic caused various new lifestyle changes, one of which was travel activities. Changes in patterns and habits make tourists' interest in accommodation, tourist attractions, transportation, to cleanliness a lot of considerations. This research aims to review the factors a tourist considers in travelling, the budget during the trip, and travel references with research loci in Bali. In this study, the data used quantitative data from questionnaire results which were then processed using SPSS. The research team used a non-probability sampling method with purposive sampling techniques to determine respondents. This study showed that some respondents were more concerned with health aspects when travelling, which affected tourists' expenses during travel to Bali due to changes in tourist preferences.

Article Details



Travel Pattern and Pandemic; How Do Travel Preferences Effects The Changes In Expenses In New Normal Era?

Ni Ketut Wiwiek Agustina1, Della Sharyputra2

Bali Tourism Polytechnic



The Covid-19 pandemic caused various new lifestyle changes, one of which was travel activities. Changes in patterns and habits make tourists' interest in accommodation, tourist attractions, transportation, to cleanliness a lot of considerations. This research aims to review the factors a tourist considers in travelling, the budget during the trip, and travel references with research loci in Bali. In this study, the data used quantitative data from questionnaire results which were then processed using SPSS. The research team used a non-probability sampling method with purposive sampling techniques to determine respondents. This study showed that some respondents were more concerned with health aspects when travelling, which affected tourists' expenses during travel to Bali due to changes in tourist preferences.

Keywords: Bali, Pandemic, New Normal Era, Travel Preferences, Changes in Expenses


At the end of 2019, the world was shocked by the emergence of a new type of virus. This virus is known to attack the human respiratory system and was later identified as the coronavirus (COVID-19). Subsequent research showed that the coronavirus has a high level of spread. The spread between humans through the air made the World Health Organization designate this virus as a global pandemic. Within seven days, cases of the spread of this virus increased from the previous 282 cases to 2,798 cases dated January 27, 2020 (WHO, 2020). The first case in Indonesia was reported to WHO on March 2, 2020, with 2 cases, but unfortunately, due to the rapid spread within one month the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia declared cases of the spread of the virus in all 34 other provinces (Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, 2021).

If it is explained behind the Corona Virus, this is not the only virus that has ever caused a pandemic, such as SARS and Ebola. As has happened before the field of tourism is a very vulnerable field. But unlike the pandemic before COVID-19, the impact of this pandemic is very different and disrupts the global economy (Gössling, Scott, & Hall, 2020). As tourism is a travel activity but the pandemic forced movement to be very limited.

Whether it is international or domestic travel, it instantly becomes impossible because many countries impose restrictions on domestic and foreign travel (UNWTO, 2020). Because restrictions and other rules forcibly require all people's habits to change. Indonesia itself was at a high-scale restriction point. But slowly rose, until the appearance of the word New Normal. New Normal is a behaviour change to keep carrying out normal activities while still implementing intensive health protocols (Adisasmita, 2020).

New lifestyle changes, especially the way of travelling, need to be researched to overcome the damage to the tourism sector (Butu, et al., The impact of COVID-19 crisis upon the consumer buying behaviour of fresh vegetables directly from local producers, 2020). Various studies have been conducted as a way to study aspects such as changes in tourist patterns and habits that turn health and safety factors into the main needs, hygiene factors and disinfection of facilities become large factors, the length of travel time becomes shorter because it is considered to minimize the risk and tourists prefer to seek help from the professional in arranging their tourist trip (Mirzaei, Sadin, & Pedram, 2021). Tourists now have different interests and concerns about accommodation, tourist attractions, transportation, and cleanliness than before the pandemic outbreak occurred (Surana, 2021).

Because of the COVID-19 case that has been controlled and considered to be overridden, the government regulations of the Republic of Indonesia have loosened so that domestic tourists have begun to travel again. This research will discuss other factors that are considered by a traveller in travelling, namely the budget during travel and travel references.

The research location is on the island of Bali because it is an island with a tourism sector that plays a significant role in driving the economy of the local community (Baiquini, 2010). The tourism sector is considered to have a strategic role and function in development. Besides being a foreign exchange producer for the country, income for the region can also increase the community's economic growth (Sanjaya, Wulandari, Sumadi, & Sugianingrat, 2019).


Tourism and COVID-19

COVID-19 results from a new virus that belongs to the group 2 beta-coronavirus group which contains the acute respiratory syndrome virus, namely SARS-CoV-2. As the world has seen for itself exposed victims generally experience respiratory complications such as cough, respiratory disorders, and fever (Mao & Jin, 2020). The enormous impact of this virus can capture the attention of the world. Almost all sectors conduct research on this Corona Virus ranging from researchers, scientists, doctors, medical practitioners, etc (Srivastava, et al., 2022).

The COVID-19 pandemic is considered the most crucial global health disaster of this century and a major challenge for humanity after the Second World War (Chakraborty & Maity, 2020). Although COVID-19 is not the first virus to create a pandemic, in the last 20 years, the world has faced three pandemics.

In 2003 there was an outbreak of SARS-CoV in Guang Dong, China with signs of acute breathing, pneumonia, lower respiratory disorders such as coughing and tightness. In 2012, a second outbreak known as MERS-CoV claimed more lives than SARS-Cov with symptoms that were initially nonspecific but ended with severe acute respiratory distress. Sars-CoV-2 claimed more lives than in two other outbreak fields (Yang, et al., 2020).

After WHO announced this outbreak to be a global pandemic, all sectors of life experienced changes and disruptions. Especially in the economic sector that experienced the greatest disruption from the impact of COVID-19, it occurred due to restrictions on community activities both business and other lives that made the purchasing power decrease to job cuts (Kraus, et al., 2020). For some developing countries, the pandemic resulted in devaluation and the MSME sector's closure to many social problems (Abuselidze & Slobodianyk, 2020).

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) says the global economy has entered a world crisis. 95% of countries are projected to experience negative economic growth. The IMF also assessed that the global economic losses caused by COVID-19 reached 12 trillion US dollars. On the other hand, the World Economic Outlook (WEO) stated that the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the world economic system which encourages the occurrence of major depression or also called the Great Depression.

According to the Asian Development Bank survey, Indonesia itself at least 48.6% of MSMEs closed due to the pandemic. Problems exist due to difficulties in the distribution process due to faltering by activity restriction regulations (Arianto, 2021). The economy and tourism are two sectors that are not separated. In the case of an economy that greatly affects tourism, and vice versa tourism positively influences economic growth.

So that if the negative impact occurs on the Indonesian economic sector, it can be indirectly concluded that the negative impact on the tourism sector can also be concluded. The Large-Scale Social Restriction policy has a major impact on the tourism economy (Utami & Kafabih, 2021). Medical experts are trying to cure the victims of COVID-19 and of course, are trying harder to find the right vaccine to overcome this virus.

In mid-2020 or especially in June the Indonesian government launched a 'new normal life' as a strategy to stay active and save various sectors (Sitorus, 2020). This strategy is issued with guidance in activities in various sectors and fields regulated by the Decree of the Minister of Health (Riandani, 2020). Not only the new normal life of the government also launched a free vaccine program for all people starting on January 13, 2021, CHSE adaptation strategies and other strategies to restore life in Indonesia.

CHSE stands for Clean, Health, Safety & Environment, which is a certificate for tourism and creative economy actors. This CHSE certificate guarantees tourists and the public that the product has met health protocols (Kementrian Pariwisata dan Ekonomi Kreatif, 2020). With the support of the government, the actors again dared to boost tourism, especially in Bali there are several recovery strategies such as High Standard Sanitation, High Standard Security, Staycation, Niche Tourism, Solo Travel Tour, Wellness tours, and Virtual Tourism (Paramita & Putra, 2020).

Travel Patterns and Pandemics

Currently, the world is experiencing a COVID-19 outbreak that has shaken the world since the end of 2019. This outbreak is also designated as one of the world's health threats that cost many lives. In 2020, the COVID-19 outbreak was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization or WHO (Satuan Tugas Penanganan COVID-19, 2021).

Pandemic itself has the meaning of an outbreak that occurs simultaneously everywhere, which causes the infectious disease to spread rapidly between individuals to other individuals. This Covid pandemic also made some travel activities a little choked. As a result, there is a change in travel patterns that are usually done by tourists, especially domestic tourists, namely changes in travel time that become shorter and choose to use a private vehicle to visit a tourist destination (Ramadhian, 2021). Travel patterns are not only about route selection but about how to make a choice. In the period before the pandemic, tourists choose a tourist attraction according to their needs, such as repeating the past, visiting new places, and others, but during a pandemic like this, tourists prefer tourist attractions that apply excellent health protocols such as temperature checking, using protective care applications to be able to enter tourist attractions, the availability of handwashing and other sanitation (Susanti, Purwanto, Yudistira, & Lisna, 2021).

Travel Pattern consists of 2 words, namely Pattern and Travel. The Great Dictionary of Indonesian Patterns and Travel has its meaning, namely Patterns that mean picture or model (KBBI,, n.d.). Travel which means Crossing from one place to another, the meaning of travel according to a large dictionary, is the activity of leaving the place of residence to visit a tourist attraction or not a tourist attraction by staying at an accommodation (KBBI,, n.d.). According to Basoeki (2014) in Yamagi (2019), the pattern of tourist travel is the structure, skeleton, and flow of tourist travel from one destination point to another. If briefly explained, the travel pattern is a picture of tourism that tourists use in travelling. In general, Travel Patterns are divided into 6 (six) categories: Single Point (Direct Route), Base Site (Base Camp Day Trip), Stop Over (En Route Stop Over), Chaining Loop (Full Orbit Round Trip), Destination Region Loop (Regional Tour Destination Area Loop), Complex Neighbourhood (Multiple Destination Area Loop)

Travel Preferences

Before travelling, every traveller has a background of factors that affect the trip. There are internal and external factors where internal factors exist due to the inner drive and desires of the individual, in contrast to external factors that include distance, cost, access, and authenticity (Abdillah A, Bella, Setiawati, & Olivia, 2019). Preference is defined by the Great Dictionary of Indonesian as a choice of interest or tendency or also something that comes first. Preferences can come from what you like or dislike. So that preference becomes one of the supporters of tourists in making decisions, in this case, both in deciding to travel and choosing tourist destinations.

Three components influence a preference: First, characteristics of individuals include age, gender, level of education, amount of income and nutritional knowledge. Second, parts of the product have the product itself, both goods and services. Lastly, the characterisation of the environment consists of the number of families, social dimensions, mobility, and seasons. (Krisnadevi, Sudiarta, & Suwena, Preferensi Dan Persepsi Wisatawan Mancanegara Ke Nusa Penida, Klungkung, 2020)

Preference roles include initiators, influencers, deciders, purchasers, and users (Kotler & Armstrong, 2014). Initiator or initiator is a person who has the need or initiative to make a purchase but does not have the authority to do it himself. An influencer is a person who can exert influence in decision making. A decider will decide whether to make a purchase or not. The purchaser is the person who made the purchase. A user is a person who uses a product or service.

In addition to roles, travel preferences are also contained in 12 dimensions: Environment, Outdoor, Package tours, Educational, Entertainment, Cultural, Urban, Beach, Sports, Heritage, Mobile vacations, and Budget vacations (Pennington-Gray & Lane, 2008). The environment consists of hygiene and hygiene standards, personal safety, air, water and soil environmental quality, good weather, easy access to health care facilities, and first-class hotels and resorts.

Outbound or outdoor activities consist of opportunities to see wildlife, birds, and flowers, national and provincial parks, incredible scenery, hunting and fishing and outdoor activities such as hiking and rock climbing. Package tours consist of one-night or more cruises, availability of inclusive travel and travel packages, comprehensive pre-trip information, various short guided tour trips, utilising currency exchange rates, and visiting remote coastal attractions.

Educational or educational consists of various things to do and see, opportunities to add knowledge, and historical places. Entertainment or entertainment consists of casinos and other gambling, nightlife, and fun. Cultural or cultural activities consist of art gallery museums and cultural art attractions.

Urban or urban entertainment consists of shopping, amusement parks, family activities and modern cities. Beach or beach vacation consists of sunbathing, swimming, water sports, and skiing in the alpine. Sports or sports vacations consist of golf and watching sporting events. Heritage consists of friendly locals, the opportunity to experience indigenous culture, and local food. Mobile vacations or sightseeing holidays consist of high-quality restaurants and campground parks. Lastly, a budget vacation consists of cheap accommodation and restaurants.

As for foreign tourists who visit Indonesia, precisely Nusa Penida, Klungkung's travel preferences are divided into tourist attractions, accommodation facilities, dining facilities, and transportation (Krisnadevi, Sudiarta, & Suwena, Preferensi dan Persepsi Wisatawan Mancanegara ke Nusa Penida, Klungkung, 2020).

Today, Indonesia's world community is still struggling to live with COVID-19. So that the emergence of viruses and pandemics certainly brings changes in tourist travel preferences. Guests at the hotel are more appreciative and appreciative of hotels that implement strict health protocols and vice versa. The hotel highly appreciates guests who use masks, maintain distance, and improve cleanliness. For business meetings, tourists prefer online meetings and using private cars to travel on vacation. At the same time, the preference for living in an urban property with both holiday and business purposes has decreased. But in budget preferences, it is not as if it drops drastically; this shows that the budget segment is relative. Those who vacation in luxury class remain with their style, or those who usually use famous accommodation do not immediately change to low-budget lodging (Canina & Davis, 2020).

Changes in Expenses

Doing things better if prepared carefully, and people who want to travel are undoubtedly considering carefully what they need, be it accommodation, location, time, public transportation at the destination, couples while on vacation, health, and budget (Collins & Potoglou, 2019).

Such preparations determine what kind of tourist trip to be carried out. The planning will be valid by looking at the expenditure capacity or budget spent while on vacation. If a person wants to go on a trip to the same destination but one himself with the concept of backpacker, then the cost he spends will be less when compared to people who travel with his family.

It all depends on each traveller. How much they earn, what their priorities are, how dependent they are and other things that only tourists themselves know. But the presence of COVID-19 forces all communities to pay more attention to cleanliness and health. This factor's cleanliness seems very important for tourists to provide a sense of security.

In addition, global economic disruptions that affect the income of the world's people mainly impact the decline in their purchasing power (Dermawan, 2022).

The existence of COVID-19 in the middle of this life also forces people to adjust their lifestyles. There are drastic changes in spending because their focus is already on health and family, where allocating expenses will be directed more towards these two things, so they are reluctant to go on a trip (Cathay Bank, 2021).

Similarly, people in the UK have not prioritised travel. This is due to health and financial problems due to rules on mandatory quarantine, lack of clarity on security measures, restrictions on international movements, health monitoring policies, and a less than optimal experience with cancellation and refund policies, all deterring prospective tourists (Deloitte, 2021).


Research hypothesis:

H0: Travel preferences have no significant effect on tourist spending

H1: Travel preferences have a significant impact on tourist spending

Previous Research

No Journal Equalities Differences

(Mirzaei, Sadin, & Pedram, 2021)

Using questionnaires, discuss the impact of COVID–19 on tourists. The study did not address spending changes.

(Abdillah A, Bella, Setiawati, & Olivia, 2019)

Discussing the preferences of domestic tourists. The research locus in Jakarta and does not research changes in expenses.

(Deloitte, 2021)

Discussing changes in spending during the pandemic. Does not discuss the effect of preference.


In conducting this study, the research team used survey methods. The survey was conducted in a questionnaire distributed through social media to determine the influence of travel preferences on changes in tourist expenditure during travel in Badung Regency and Gianyar Regency. In determining the sample, the sampling technique used is non-probability sampling with purposive sampling techniques. Purposive sampling is one of the sampling techniques that include certain considerations. (Sugiyono, 2020). The research team referred to the slovin theory to determine the number of samples. The number of samples needed with the slovin formula is as many as 100 respondents with the criteria used in this study, namely domestic tourists who travelled before and during the pandemic (The year 2020 - 2021). With the total respondents, the analysis techniques in this study used inferential analysis with simple linear regression data testing techniques.


Sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents showed 66 women (52%) and 61 men (48%). Most of the respondents were from generation Z groups aged 16-25 years, and the rest of the generation Y or Millennials were aged 26-41 years. The places of origin from Java Island, 54.3%, Sumatra Island, 15%, Nusa Tenggara Island, 10.2%, and other islands. Most of the respondents were 55.1% students and 19.7% self-employed. (Table 1.1)


Characteristics of Sosiodeography

Gender Education

Woman 66 Primary School 2

Men 61 Junior High School 1

Age High School / Vocational School 66

- 25 Years 79 Diploma 12

– 41 Years 48 Bachelor 44

Place of Origin Postgraduate 2

Sumatra 19 Occupation

Java 69 Student 70

Bali 11 Self Employed 25

Nusa Tenggara Island 13 Professional 6

Kalimantan 2 Entrepreneurial 4

Sulawesi 11 Others 22

Irian Jaya 2

In knowing the influence of travel preferences on changes in tourist spending during travel in Badung and Gianyar Regency, the research team measured it using three measuring factors consisting of internal and external factors that are travel preferences and changes in expenses that occur. In internal factors, the research team analyzed new habits experienced by tourists and the sense of security when visiting during the COVID-19 pandemic. External factors in this study analyse accessibility, accommodation, and application of CHSE. The last factor is the change in expenses, analyzing the influence of travel preferences on changes in expenditure experienced by tourists when visiting Badung Regency and Gianyar Regency.

A simple linear regression test aims to determine the influence of travel preferences on changes in expenditure during domestic tourists travelling in the Badung Regency and Gianyar Regency. Simple linear regression analysis is done using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) data application ver. 26, while the confidence level used in simple linear regression calculations is 95% or with a significance level of 0.05 (α 0.05).

Based on the results of SPSS data in the table (Simple Linear Regression Calculation Results) above can be known that simple linear regression equations are as follows:

Y = a + bX

Y = 6.858 + 0.143

The coefficients of the simple linear regression equation above can be interpreted as a regression coefficient for a constant of 6,858, indicating that if the Travel Preference variable is zero or fixed, it will increase Tourist Expenditure by 6,858 units. The variable coefficient value of Travel Preferences of 0.143 indicates that if the Travel Preference variable increases by one unit, it will increase Tourist Expenditure by 0.143 units or 14.3%.

The hypotensive test in this study was Uji T. The T-test is used to partially test the significance level of variables X to Y. The sample used was 126 respondents, so the T-test used with df = n-2 (126-2 = 124) or df = 124 people, and the significance level (α) = 5% was obtained T table of 1.97928.


T. test results

Independent Variable T Signification

Travel Preferences (X) 8.018 0.000

Source: SPSS data processing results, 2022

Based on table 1.3 The three obtained from the results of data processing using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) version 22, then obtained t-test of variable X, namely in the calculation of SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) can be seen that (t) calculate the variable Travel Preference (8.018) > (t) table (1.97928) and significant value of 0.000< 0.05, so H1: Travel preferences have a significant effect on tourist expenditure is acceptable, while H0: Travel preferences have no significant impact on the spending of rejected tourists. So, it can be concluded that travel preferences partially have a positive and considerable influence on tourist spending.

Model Summary

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate

.584a .341 .336 2.160

a. Predictors: (Constant), Preference.P


Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

Regression 299.914 1 299.914 64.292 .000b

Residual 578.443 124 4.665

Total 878.357 125

a. Dependent Variable: Pengeluaran

b. Predictors: (Constant), Preferensi.P


Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.

B Std. Error Beta

(Constant) 6.858 1.247 5.499 .000

Preferensi.P .143 .018 .584 8.018 .000

a. Dependent Variable: Pengeluaran

After conducting data analysis, the next step is to discuss the results of the data obtained about Travel Preferences for Changes in Expenses. The hypothesis test results prove the influence of Travel Preferences on Changes in Expenditure. This can be seen through the results of the SPSS ver.26 output with regression analysis of variables that show a positive correlation coefficient (R) (0.548) and a value (t) calculate the Circle Preference variable (8.018) that exceeds the value (t) of the table which is 1.97928 according to a significant level of 5%. The results of this study show the influence that Travel Preferences have on Changes in Expenditure, so it can be concluded that Travel Preferences have a positive and significant impact on Changes in Expenditure which indicates that changes in Travel Preferences result in changes in tourist expenditure.


The COVID-19 pandemic brought significant changes to all countries, communities, customs, families, etc. (Butu, et al., The impact of COVID-19 crisis upon the consumer buying behaviour of fresh vegetables directly from local producers, 2020) Movements became severely limited and flights were dismissed in the public interest. Many businesses are closely related to the tourism sector such as restaurants, accommodation, and travel agencies do not fully operate even most businesses are forced to close.

This happens because of the uncertain situation and the reluctance of tourists to travel. This study concluded that Indonesian people feel saturated by the pandemic. The conclusion is obtained from the percentage figure that reaches 90% agree with the statement. This pandemic has resulted in changes in behaviour, demands, and other attributes of tourists when travelling. (Mirzaei, Sadin, & Pedram, 2021). Since the government issued looser regulations on travelling, the public welcomed by starting to return to travel. Some respondents expressed concern about travelling. But from this study, it can be concluded that tourists experience changes in preference when travelling to Bali, especially Badung Regency and Gianyar Regency, during the pandemic. In supporting the goodwill of tourists who want to travel, it is important to identify the preferences that make tourists feel confident and safe to return to travel.

Currently, tourists are more concerned with the health aspect when travelling, judging by the percentage of accumulated frequency of the range strongly agreed, which reached 55% and agreed to reach 30% of all health preference change statements indicators. In addition, the change in preferences affects the expenditure of tourists during travel to Bali, which can be seen from the percentage of accumulation of strongly agreed, which reached 55% and agreed 30% on the indicator of the statement of expenditure changes due to changes in preferences.


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